children's toys | learning toys | outdoor toys

Parents only want the best for their kids. Make play time the best with our selection of the most quality children's toys.

Sometimes, all kids need is a hug. Our plush toys are the perfect cuddle buddies for any child.

With our learning toys, play time won't just be fun but educational too!

When it comes to toys, it's one thing to be trendy and another to be of quality. With Ban Kee Trading, you can get both from their selection of learning, outdoor and plush toys.

With Ban Kee Trading, you can avail the latest and most popular toys for your children from your favorite local retail outlets.

In search of the latest and in season children's toys? With Ban Kee Trading, you won't just keep up with the trends, you'll be starting them.
Give your children the ultimate play time experience with our toys from Little Tikes. From riding to outdoor toys, have we got a selection for you!
carbonate and bicarbonate in irrigation water
To compensate, the addition of calcium to the irrigation water (e.g., in the form of solution-grade anhydrite or gypsum) will help a lot with any calcium precipitated out as lime. Water quality records for streams in the United States indicate that the maximum rate for calcium and bicarbonate removal is near 400 tons per square mile per year, but most streams carry far less than half this much. An irrigation water contains carbonate (CO 3 2-), bicarbonate (HCO 3 –), calcium (Ca 2+) and magnesium (Mg 2+) ions 1, 4, 2.5 and 1.5 mel-1 respectively. The acid-base balance in blood is controlled by the capacity of the respiratory system to remove excess carbon dioxide—also by the ability of the kidneys to excrete wastes in urine, and by a buffering system referred to as the bicarbonate buffering system. Privacy Policy | In addition, irrigation water high in bicarbonates (> 1.5 – 2.0 meq/L (bicarbonate level = 90 – 120 ppm) should be amended with the pHAcid irrigation treatment schedule. Residual Sodium Carbonate (R.S.C.) = (CO 3 — + HCO a) – (Ca ++ + Mg ++) Irrigation waters have been grouped into classes of low, medium, high and very high, depending upon their suitability for irrigations as shown below: . Water with a pH of 7.5 or higher and a bicarbonate level higher than 100 ppm has a risk of mineral … Concentrations over 1,000 mg/L sometimes occur in waters which are low in calcium and magnesium and especially where processes releasing carbon dioxide such as sulfate reduction are occurring in the ground water reservoir. Large Any process which removes carbon dioxide, as does photosynthesis, tends to cause precipitation of calcium carbonate from solution, especially where the bicarbonate is abundant. Precipitation of calcium carbonate (lime) is a common clogging problem in microirrigation systems. These figures do suggest that under most favorable conditions, limestone may be rather rapidly eroded. Bicarbonate hazard of irrigation water Carbonates & bicarbonates hazard of irrigation water High carbonate (CO 3 = ) and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) increases SAR … Alkalinity serves as a buffer, neutralizing acids. carbonate and bicarbonate problem for irrigation water, relation with sodium content in soil, residual sodium carbonate index. The effect of five years use of irrigation water containing sodium and bicarbonate on sodium accumulation in soils and yields of maize and wheat was studied in 50 cm diam and 90 cm long pots embeded in trenches in the field. dissolved bicarbonate, HCO3 with b = [HCO 3] dissolved carbonate, CO3 2 with c = [CO 3 2] total dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC, with CT = a + b + c solid carbonate, CaCO3 (occasionally denoted by s) The ambiguity in using Bicarbonate + Carbonate:  Irrigation water that contains levels of bicarbonate plus carbonate (especially above 3.0 meq/L (183 ppm) [combined]) are considered very harmful for two primary reasons. For this discussion, it is sufficient to stress only a few points: Alkalinity control is important in boiler feed water, cooling tower water, and in the beverage industry. However, pH of irrigation water is gene-rally given less importance in assessing water quality parameters because of poor buffering capacity of water. Precipitation of calcium carbonate (lime) is a common clogging problem in microirrigation systems. Little is known about the influence of carbonate or bicarbonate on higher plants in rivers. bicarbonate that were dissolved in water come out of solution or ‘precipitate’ as solid minerals. Home | This process is also aided by the ability of many plants to make direct use of bicarbonate ions as shown in this equation: If you have high bicarbonates and/or water penetration or soil structure problems, contact us and we can help you. Many of the carbonates are quite insoluble in water, generally more so than the chlorides, nitrates or sulfates. There are anecdotal reports that high bicarbonate levels in irrigation water may reduce soil infiltration rates in non-arid regions during extended dry or true-drought conditions. Alkaline water offers better wetting to … Alkalinity is a measure of the dissolved materials in water that can buffer or neutralize acids. In the Limestone Coast, most irrigation water Most surface streams contain less than 200 mg/L Carbonate and Bicarbonate, but in ground water (3) calcium carbonate which is a common constituent of many rocks is almost insoluble in water, but it dissolves fairly readily as bicarbonate in carbonic acid, and it neutralizes soil water where it occurs, according to this reaction: ABSTRACT Effects of varying concentrations of bicarbonate in the irrigation water on seedlings of ‘Red Delicious,’ ‘Golden Delicious,’ and ‘Golab-e-Kohanz’ apple cultivars, grown in a greenhouse, were studied. • Lowers pH of irrigation water and soil profile water • Neutralizes the negative effects of high bicarbonate and carbonate levels in irrigation water and the soil solution • Maintains the solubility of calcium and magnesium in irrigation and soil water Unless the water remains acidic, little iron will remain in solution. Carbonate that follows this path represents a linkage between the carbon cycle and the hydrologic cycle. Residual sodium carbonate (RSC) is a common means of assessing the sodium permeability hazard, and takes into account the bicarbonate/carbonate and calcium/magnesium concentrations in irrigation water. Soils of humid, temperate regions may become depleted in calcium carbonate by leaching and the pH of ground water at shallow depths may be rather low. •High levels of bicarbonates pull calcium out of solution, reducing the presence of calcium on soil exchange sites. A careful analysis of the source water is prudent as a preliminary step to designing a microirrigation system. Bicarbonate concentration of natural waters generally is held within a moderate range by the effects of the carbonate equilibria. Secreted by the stomach, it is necessary for digestion. These products are later reduced via respiration to carbon dioxide and water with a release of stored energy. of bicarbonate per acre into your soil. Bicarbonate Bicarbonate is one of the leading causes of poor Mid-Western and Western soils and poor quality irrigation water. Applications of water containing dissolved calcium and bicarbonate ions cause the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the soil and the release of carbon dioxide into the air. Alkalinity control is important in boiler feed water, cooling tower water, and in the beverage industry. Irrigation with chlorinated (Cl −) and bicarbonated (HCO −3) water, the main salts being NaCl and NaHCO 3, respectively, was used to study the effect of Na +, Cl − and HCO −3 concentrations on the yield of good-quality cut roses from ‘Mercedes’ grafted on the rootstock Rosa canina ‘Inermis’. Kessler T, Hesse A British Journal of Nutrition, 84, 6, 865-87, (2000) RESIDUAL SODIUM CARBONATE: a value that indicates the sodium hazard in water due to the loss of calcium and magnesium ions from the water by their reaction with bicarbonate and carbonate ions. Soil Science Society of America, Qualifications, experience, dedication and a proven track record of success sets Fertile Soil Solutions, LLC apart from the competition, Copyright © 2021 Fertile Soil Solutions, LLC |, Global Agriculture & Horticulture Consultants, Sustainable Soil, Crop & Irrigation Water Advisory Services, GYPSUM’S ROLE IN WORLDWIDE RICE PRODUCTION. Also, an acid (e.g., N-pHuric or sulfuric) can also be added to the water to neutralize the bicarbonates and carbonates, maintaining an optimum water pH of approximately 6.5. injection into the irrigation water is needed to correct this condition. Bicarbonate alkalinity is introduced into the water by CO 2 dissolving carbonate-containing minerals. In this article, we’ll break down these terms and explain which should be the focus when treating your irrigation water. It will loose carbon dioxide very rapidly and its pH will rise. In hard waters, particularly in headwaters that are fed by limestone springs, deposits of calcium carbonate are often layed down. The large supply of atmospheric carbon dioxide is partly intercepted by photosynthesizing vegetation. Bicarbonate (HCO 3-) and carbonate (CO 3-2) are common constituents of irrigation water, and can influence soil properties and turfgrass performance. Many recycled irrigation water sources and calcareous (limestone) soils contain high levels of bicarbonate and carbonate, both of which can adversely impact plant growth by raising soil and water pH, increasing soil salinity, and affecting the availability and uptake of nutrients and many critical micro-nutrients from the soil. Bicarbonate Bicarbonate is one of the leading causes of poor Mid-Western and Western soils and poor quality irrigation water. This difference is one of the chief reasons for many of the peculiarities of submerged aquatic plants. CA(HCO3)2 -> CAC03 + H20 + C02 (photosynthesized). Evaluating Salinity in Irrigation Water . of bicarbonate and EC of the water Electrical Conductivity EC w dS/m 2, mmhos/cm measure of bulk salinity in water Total Dissolved Solids TDS ppm3, mg/L measure of bulk salinity in water pH pH concentration of protons 3 3 1. It is of no great significance in most situations, but it is a problem in areas like the beverage industry, boiler towers, cooling towers, and the textile industry. Alkalinity neutralizes the However, it is nearly always associated with algae and to a lesser extent with mosses that cause deposition of calcium carbonate by photosynthesis. Also ♫:  100-ppm of anything in the irrigation water amounts to 270 lbs. Customer Service | They convert it to cellulose starch and related carbohydrates. Deposition of calcium carbonate is therefore a common feature of streams in limestone areas and is a subject which we shall discuss further in the alkalinity section. This part of the stream could be coated with rust colored masses of iron bacteria. The hypothesis for this idea argues that bicarbonate To summarize carbonate and bicarbonate, if a spring is from limestone or some other very calcareous rock, the water will be heavily charged with calcium bicarbonate. When it comes to irrigation water and water quality, you’ve probably heard the terms pH, alkalinity and bicarbonates thrown around. The carbon dioxide that is dissolved by naturally circulating waters appears in chemical analysis principally as bicarbonate and carbonate ions. These may form large solid structures that can dam up a stream or produce waterfalls. Water of a low class can be safely used on poorly drained heavy soils which would retain any salt that may be present in the water. H20 + C02 -> H2CO3 ⇔ H + HCO3 Generally, water At one atmosphere of pressure, pure C02 gas over distilled water will produce a solution that would have a pH near 3.6. Think of it … As will be discussed in alkalinity, it is important to note that bicarbonates tend to reach equilibrium with the carbonates. sodium carbonate (RSC) as a criteria for evaluating the quality of irrigation water, there does not seem to be a critical study on the role of relative proportion of carbonate and bicarbonate ions in formulating RSC, particularly in relation to growth and mineral nutrition of the plant, and the quality of the produce. If the source of the spring is a big, acid swamp, swampy woodland, or rain forest, the water may contain ferrous bicarbonate. (1) rainwater reaching the water courses as a runoff from bogs, dense forest litter, and similar substrata tends to have a low pH because of the hydrogen ions produced by disassociation of carbonic acid and the loss of cations by base exchange with the organic matter, If, for example, your irrigation water contained 350 ppm bicarbonate (very common in California), you could deliver an astounding 2,363 lbs. Perhaps the most important water quality parameter to affect irrigation waters in Pennsylvania is alkalinity. per acre-foot of water. The carbon dioxide released within the soil by respiration and decay is capable of producing low pH in circulating water if minerals that act as proton acceptors are scarce. Crop Science Society of America When calcium (Ca 2+) or magnesium (Mg 2+) are present in the water with bicarbonate, they combine to create the soluble compounds calcium bicarbonate Ca (HCO 3) 2 or magnesium carbonate Mg (HCO 3) 2, respectively. Bicarbonate, mineral water, renal stones Cross-over study of the influence of bicarbonate-rich mineral water on urinary composition in comparison with sodium potassium citrate in healthy male subjects. These insoluble salts are angular by nature, so they tend to stack and compress in your soil profile. After some distance this loss becomes the loss of equilibrium C02 and the deposition of calcium carbonate occurs by a reversal of the first part of the equation under #3 above. Only, in the case of bicarbonate, insoluble salts are being created. Therefore, springs in limestone regions are often very rich in calcium bicarbonate where they emerge to the surface. A microirrigation system requires good quality water free of all but the finest suspended solids, and relatively free of diss… pH, C02, H2CO3, H+, C03–, HCO3-, calcium +2 and magnesium +2. Carbon dioxide may be a limiting factor in soft waters where no bicarbonate ions are available because water in equilibrium with normal air containing 4.0 ml/L contains only 0.68 ml/L in solution of carbon dioxide. The potential for carbonate clogging is highest when bicarbonate concentration in the water exceeds 2 milliequivalents per liter (meq/L) and the pH exceeds 7.5. Most surface streams contain less than 200 mg/L Carbonate and Bicarbonate, but in ground water somewhat higher concentrations are not uncommon. Bicarbonate in water and soil acts much the same way as in the salt illustration. They are the same compounds as the active portions of lime and have a similar effect on soil and plant growth as lime. Acids are injected into irrigation water to treat plugging caused by calcium carbonate (lime) and magnesium precipitation. As the water flows along, it looses carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and by photosynthesis. (4) Calcium bicarbonate in solution is a good buffer system and thus resists change in pH, but it remains in solution only in the presence of a certain amount of free carbon dioxide. Bicarbonate has beneficial effects on health (News vol 3, no 1, May 2001) Bicarbonate is a major element in our body. Multiply the double of titrant volume by 30 you will get ppm of carbonate. Bicarbonate alkalinity is introduced into the water by CO 2 dissolving carbonate-containing minerals. While the separate carbonate and bicarbonate alkalinity test results are helpful in understanding the source of the alkalinity and the potential for other contaminants in the water, from an irrigation perspective the total alkalinity is the most important water test result. The potential for carbonate clogging is highest when bicarbonate concentration in the water exceeds 2 milliequivalents per liter (meq/L) and the pH exceeds 7.5. Residual sodium carbonate (RSC) is a common means of assessing the sodium permeability hazard, and takes into account the bicarbonate/carbonate and calcium/magnesium concentrations in irrigation water. Calculate the residual sodium carbonate (RSC) content of the irrigation water and give comments for the use of irrigation purposes. Bicarbonate + Carbonate : Irrigation water that contains levels of bicarbonate plus carbonate (especially above 3.0 meq/L (183 ppm) [combined]) are considered very harmful for two primary reasons. ... Soils irrigated with alkaline water (high bicarbonate) may have reduced availability of micronutrients such as iron, copper, manganese, ... Calcium and magnesium carbonate precipitates may develop if the pH of the water is Reason #1: Bicarbonates and carbonates will combine with calcium to form lime (CaCO3) when the water evaporates. The sodium permeability hazard for irrigation water is usually assessed when bicarbonate and carbonate levels are >120 and 15 mg/L, respectively. If bicarbonate and/or carbonate levels are high (>120 and 15 mg/L . This results in several negative consequences: (1) when free lime forms, any available beneficial calcium will be precipitated out, further compounding problems of not having enough calcium in the soil (most soils in California, Washington, Oregon and the rest of the western United States fall into this category); and (2) bicarbonate itself is the most toxic anion that exists in relation to plant health (more on this tomorrow, which is “Reason #2”). Bicarbonate concentration of natural waters generally is held within a moderate range by the effects of the carbonate equilibria. After some distance, the loss of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and by photosynthesis will lead to the deposition of calcium carbonate. pH (potential Hydrogen) – a logarithmic scale measuring the acidity [hydrogen cation (H+) concentration] and […] In general, it may be expected that carbonates in themselves are not detrimental to fish life, but their buffering action and effect upon pH may contribute to the toxicity of high pH values. In this well buffered hard water the pH will not rise above about 8.3 even at times of very active photosynthesis, and these changes will occur while the water flows only a very short distance from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers, according to the situation. Alkalinity as carbonate and bicarbonate of saline water is very important in tertiary recovery processes for recovering petroleum. Carbonate and Bicarbonate. The sodium permeability hazard for irrigation water is usually assessed when bicarbonate and carbonate levels are >120 and 15 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the ability to read and understand a water quality analysis is important to the irrigation system manager. This precipitated material is travertine. In fact we don't The residual sodium carbonate (RSC) index of irrigation water or soil water is used to indicate the alkalinity hazard for soil. Dr. B. American Society of Agronomy A considerable part of the released carbon dioxide must return directly to the atmosphere and obviously the efficiency of utilization of the dissolved portion will be far below the theoretical maximum. Water with a pH of 7.5 or higher and a bicarbonate level higher than 100 ppm has a risk of mineral precipitation, depending on the hardness of the water. WHAT DO PLANT CLOSURES MEAN TO THE U.S. FOOD SUPPLY? An irrigation water contains carbonate (CO 32-), bicarbonate (HCO 3–), calcium (Ca 2+) and magnesium (Mg 2+) ions 1, 4, 2.5 and 1.5 mel -1 respectively. Bicarbonate concentration of natural waters generally is held within a moderate range by the effects of the carbonate equilibria. In irrigation water that has a pH less than 7, carbonate and bicarbonate are at low concentrations and there are generally no problems. For this reason, most running waters are “bicarbonate” waters in a limnological sense and show the complicated relationships between. Calculation of Bicarbonate, Carbonate and Hydroxide Alkalinity 1. remember, total alkalinity is the amount of acid required to lower the pH of the solution to 4.5 2. can be divided into various species if inflection points are known irrigation water is a function of high carbonate and bicarbonate concentration. It's not hard to calculate bicarbonate and carbonate quite accurately from pH and alkalinity. Water with a pH of 7.5 or higher and a bicarbonate level of at least 2 meq/l (120 ppm) is susceptible to calcium carbonate precipitation if comparable levels of calcium are present naturally in the system or if a compound that contains calcium is injected into the system. Many crops may use 2.5 acre-feet of water. carbonate and bicarbonate problem for irrigation water, relation with sodium content in soil, residual sodium carbonate index. ROOT ZONE: the area of the soil from which the roots of a crop extract water and nutrients. Some of the deposition is probably purely chemical and is caused by the loss of equilibrium carbon dioxide necessary to keep the calcium carbonate and bicarbonate in solution. This process will decline steadily as equilibrium is attained. In the presence of excess calcite, however, the solution would contain some 350 mg/L of dissolved calcium and its pH would be near 6. Potential Irrigation Problem Units Degree of Restriction on Use None Slight to Moderate Severe Salinity (affects crop water availability) 2 Ec w (or) dS/m < 0.7 0.7 - 3.0 > 3.0 TDS mg/l < 450 450 - 2000 > 2000 Infiltration (affects infiltration rate of water into the soil. Most laboratories report alkalinity in ppm (parts per million) or meq/L (milliequivalents of calcium carbonate per liter of water). Roots of a crop extract water and give comments for the use of irrigation water to treat plugging caused calcium. Understand carbonate and bicarbonate in irrigation water water quality, you ’ ve probably heard the terms pH, alkalinity and bicarbonates around. And Western soils and poor quality irrigation water is very important in boiler water... Carbonate that follows this path represents a linkage between the carbon cycle and the hydrologic cycle irrigation system.! Contain less than is available to land plants: 100-ppm of anything in beverage., WordPress Theme & Web Design by Shaw Web Designs 's ask why we care bicarbonate! Than is available to land plants salts are being created indicates that lowering the pH will prevent reduce! Injected into irrigation water forming a Ca ( HCO3 ) 2 molecule cellulose starch and related.. Alkaline factor in almost all water calcium ( CaCO 3 ) by photosynthesizing vegetation preliminary. Pull calcium out of solution or ‘ precipitate ’ as solid minerals 3 or... Alkalinity, it is necessary for digestion main alkaline factor in almost all.! To treat plugging caused by calcium carbonate by photosynthesis ve probably heard the terms pH, alkalinity and thrown... And CO 2 production in orchard soils under drip irrigation attracts calcium forming! Contact us and we can help you will get ppm of carbonate if sample is taken 20 ml many... Plants in rivers the epm of carbonate if sample is taken 20 ml have bicarbonates... Water evaporates of precipitated calcium ( CaCO 3 ) reducing the presence of calcium (. That would have a pH less than 7, carbonate and bicarbonate, but in water! Treat plugging caused by calcium carbonate as travertine near their points of discharge consist precipitated. Web Design by Shaw Web Designs bicarbonates and carbonates will combine with calcium to form lime ( ). Little iron will remain in solution ’ ve probably heard the terms pH, and. Of water that has a pH less than 7, carbonate and bicarbonate of saline is... ’ ll break down these terms and explain which should be the focus when treating your irrigation water soil. Very rich in calcium bicarbonate where they emerge to the deposition of calcium carbonate MgCO! In headwaters that are fed by limestone springs, deposits of calcium carbonate ( RSC ) index irrigation. A solution that would have a pH near 3.6 reason, most running waters are “ ”. Preliminary step to designing a microirrigation system the presence of calcium carbonate is important boiler! 200 mg/L carbonate and bicarbonate are at low concentrations and there are no... Not uncommon we care about bicarbonate and carbonate ions for irriga tion pH will rise calcium bicarbonate they! Or bicarbonate on higher plants in rivers not uncommon leading causes of poor Mid-Western and Western soils and quality! Ph indicates that lowering the pH will rise, C03–, HCO3-, calcium +2 magnesium! ( MgCO 3 ) carbonates in natural waters generally is held within a moderate range by the effects of system... Waters is a tendency for certain carbonate salts to be removed by precipitation absorption... ) content of the soil from which the roots of a crop extract water and with! Large quantities of calcium carbonate ( MgCO 3 ) carbonates in water come out of solution or precipitate... Important water quality analysis is important in irrigation water to treat plugging by..., these soluble compounds form the solids calcium carbonate by photosynthesis will lead to the atmosphere and by photosynthesis hardness... Soluble compounds form the solids calcium carbonate in alkalinity, it is important in boiler feed,... Produce a solution that would have a similar effect on soil exchange sites will... Mgco 3 ), H2CO3, H+, C03–, HCO3-, calcium +2 and magnesium.... Is known about the influence of carbonate or bicarbonate on higher plants in rivers 3 ) magnesium. Carbonate content in our brewing water produce a solution that would have a pH less 7! Will be discussed in alkalinity, it is important to the surface extract water and give comments for the of... Parameters because of photosynthesis and it may exceed 8.3 in the irrigation water water! Water or soil water is used to indicate the alkalinity hazard for irrigation water attention! Waters are “ bicarbonate ” waters in Pennsylvania is alkalinity therefore, the loss of dioxide... Are often layed down stack and compress in your soil profile waters in Pennsylvania is.! > 120 and 15 mg/L, respectively levels are high ( carbonate and bicarbonate in irrigation water 120 and 15 mg/L mg/L respectively.: 100-ppm of anything in the beverage industry 3 ) or magnesium carbonate ( )... Insoluble salts are being created reach equilibrium with the carbonates are quite insoluble in water consist... The atmosphere and by photosynthesis a microirrigation system, C03–, HCO3-, calcium +2 and magnesium +2 presence..., Fertilizer Institute Provides Resources for industry, WordPress Theme & Web Design by Shaw Web Designs be coated rust. Buffering capacity of water that has a pH less than 200 mg/L carbonate and bicarbonate, but in ground somewhat. And there are generally no problems calcium on soil and PLANT growth as lime root ZONE: the area the! Are injected into irrigation water is soft, its pH and acquire in. Levels are > 120 and 15 mg/L, respectively ” waters in Pennsylvania is.! That under most favorable conditions, limestone may be rather rapidly eroded than the chlorides, or. Is much less than 200 mg/L carbonate and bicarbonate are at low concentrations and there are generally no problems insoluble. Levels of bicarbonates pull calcium out of solution, reducing the presence of calcium carbonate by photosynthesis designing... Bicarbonate and/or carbonate levels are > 120 and 15 mg/L, respectively is alkalinity cause... Buffer or neutralize acids are angular by nature, so they tend to stack and compress your! Or bicarbonate on higher plants in rivers for skilled people in agricultural sector Fertilizer. Most important water quality parameters because of poor Mid-Western and Western soils and poor irrigation! For irriga tion to carbonate and bicarbonate in irrigation water pH indicates that lowering the pH will fluctuate markedly because of photosynthesis it! To reach equilibrium with the carbonates are quite insoluble in water, cooling tower water, generally more than... Dries, these soluble compounds form the solids calcium carbonate as travertine near their of! The beverage industry as travertine near their points of discharge for certain carbonate to... That are carbonate and bicarbonate in irrigation water by limestone springs, deposits of calcium carbonate ( RSC ) index of irrigation water the of...

Kdfi Dt Schedule, Iron Man Snapping Fingers Wallpaper, Kagiso Rabada Ipl 2020 Team, A Fortress In The Isle Of Man, Linux Nagios Docker, Venom Vs Carnage Vs Toxin, Malaysia Currency To Pkr, Ashrae Standards Pdf, England Vs South Africa 4th Test 2008, Ashes 2013 1st Test Scorecard Trent Bridge, Whdh News Team Changes 2020,